Hernia is a defect in abdominal wall. When there are weak spots in abdominal muscles or in a connecting tissue called fascia, an organ such as intestine or fatty tissue may push through the defect and a hernia occurs. Surgery is the only scientific treatment available for Hernia. Avoiding or postponing surgery only makes things worse for the patient.
Most common type of Hernia is inguinal (inner groin) which makes up for 96% of all groin hernias and this occurs mostly in men due to their natural weakness in groin area.
Other common types of Hernia are incisional (resulting from an incision of prior surgery or c-section delivery), femoral (outer groin), umbilical (belly button) or hiatal (upper stomach).
Be it any kind of Hernia, concept of repair remains the same. The overhanging abdominal organ or content is first pushed back surgically into the abdomen where it belongs, placing a surgical mesh in most cases to reinforce the area so that Hernia does not recur again and then finally suturing the area for closing the defect in abdominal wall.
A Hernia can be repaired by either conventional open surgery with a big incision of 3 inches to 6 inches or laparoscopic surgery that applies 3-4 tiny incisions of 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch size and a special set of thin instruments used to minimize trauma to the body. Laparoscopic Hernia repair offers much less postoperative discomfort and pain, reduced recovery time that allows earlier return to full activity, easier repair of a recurrent hernia, the ability to treat bilateral hernias concurrently in the same surgery, the performance of a simultaneous diagnostic laparoscopy, ligation of the hernia sac at the highest possible site, improved cosmetic appearance of abdomen after surgery, and decreased chances of recurrence. However, its extremely important to choose a well experienced center for Laparoscopic surgery to minimize and avoid complications such as injuries to bowel, bladder, and blood vessels; and potential adhesive complications at mesh placement area.
We are the only center in Pune and Western Maharashtra offering Robotic Hernia Repair. A key advantage of Robotic instrumentation is that they articulate just like human wrist whereas laparoscopic instruments don’t. As a result, complex Hernia surgeries now can be done by keyholes of laparoscopic surgery easily using robotic instruments. Some people may mistake that Robotic surgery is done by Robots. Actually it is not so. A surgeon controls movements of instruments like a pilot controls the plane. His commonds are obeyed by instruments that are much more finer and flexible compared to traditional instruments. As a result superior surgical outcomes are achieved with minimal discomfort to patients.
3 Dimensional Hernia mesh is basically a surgical implant that takes the shape of the body. A 3 D mesh can be placed with open as well as laparoscopic surgery technique. The advantages outweigh the conventional meshes approach in this specific case.
Occurs in the inner groin. A hernia occurs when an organ or part of it leaves the cavity that contains it and passes through a hole or weak area in one of the layers of the abdominal wall that surrounds the muscle, called the fascia.
Occurs in the upper thigh / outer groin. This hernia is extra commonplace in ladies, who may also get it as a result of a weak spot in the femoral canal vicinity of the groin.
Occurs at the belly button. This hernia is visible in children and adults of each gender within the umbilical ring that surrounds the navel.
occurs in the general abdominal / ventral wall. A ventral hernia is the result of poor healing of an incision (cut) made in the abdominal wall during surgery. The result is a defect (hole) in it, where abdominal contents (intestinal handles) can come out causing obstructions, pain and, in the most severe cases, intestinal necrosis.
occurs through an incision or scar in the abdomen. This form of a hernia occurs via the scar from a past surgical procedure, especially after post-operative infections, chronic cough, obesity and so on.
occurs inside the abdomen, along the upper stomach/diaphragm. A hiatus hernia is associated with gastric reflux (GERD or GORD). For similarly data please talk to our segment on Gastric Reflux.
Modern hernia surgery is typically painless. The patient starts moving around 3 hours after the surgery and resumes liquids within 2 hours of surgery.
The content of the hernia usually moves to and fro from the abdominal cavity to the hernia sac but unfortunately in bad time hernia can get obstructed. The content may not go back into the abdominal cavity and its function might get hampered. If its intestine then may land up in an entity called as intestinal obstruction. Worst case scenario, the intestines can die in it too!
Most people consult doctors for either a swelling which is gradually increasing in size or Pain.The unsightly swelling can cause disfigurement of the body , poor fitting of clothes, restrict your athletic ability ,affect sexual function and what follows next is low self esteem! Pain, distressing of all symptoms can be nagging or dragging type to begin with and can later progress to constant colicky type if the hernia complicates.
Practically everywhere! But I would like to tell you all about ABDOMINAL WALL hernias.
The abdominal wall hernias can be of various types! The Abdominal wall, is sheet of tough muscles and fascias and tendons that runs down from rib cage to the origin of legs and act as a corset.
Groin hernias are the most common of all abdominal wall hernias. The one most of you have seen or heard of, the one which every weightlifter is scared of! To be specific these groin hernias are called as INGUINAL and FEMORAL hernia. Inguinal is further classified into two, Direct and Indirect hernia.
Indirect hernias occur through a natural point of weakness which is called as The INGUINAL CANAL (connects the scrotum to internal abdominal cavity). Everyone has this canal but not everyone has this hernia! When kid is in the womb the testis descends down through this canal from abdomen to the scrotum and may leave behind a patent tract which in future leaves a hassle free entry port for the organs (mostly intestine and omentum- the fat curtain) to descend outside the abdominal cavity into the canal or scrotum.
Direct hernias occur through an acquired weakness in the abdominal cavity muscles namely through the Hasselbach’s triangle.
Femoral hernias also occur through a natural orifice in the abdominal cavity that connects the lower abdomen with the upper thigh.
Apart from these groin hernia there are other types of hernia that occurs in varying frequency but needs equal attention. These are –
1. Umbilical hernia – through the navel.
2. Epigastric hernia – through weakness of upper abdomen.
3. Lumbar hernia – through the muscles of lower back.
4. Spigelian hernia – through the flat muscles of the abdomen, side aspect.
5. Incisional hernia – occurs through acquired defect or weakness, the incision of previous surgery.
We would like to bring your attention to a special type of hernia which mandates special care and early attention to seek medical care – the hiatus hernia! This is the type of type of hernia where abdominal organs namely oesophagus and stomach ascends into the chest cavity without any external swelling!!! Only the sufferer understands the agony associated with it which is the heartburns and regurgitation……
Hernias occur through either natural or acquired weaknesses in the abdominal wall. The abdominal wall is fashioned in such a way that it holds the abdominal organs inside in the abdominal cavity but there are places of natural weakness in this wall which can predispose a person to have hernia/hernias. There are certain factors which can increase the risk of a person having hernia viz. Obesity, poor nutrition, smoking, previous surgery, constipation, persistent cough ,overexertion and people who sit in front of computers all day long!
The word hernia comes from Latin word hernia which means “RUPTURE”. In our modern day society I would like explain hernia as an abnormal protrusion of an organ from the body cavity that contains it to another/outside world.
There are a panel of test for anaesthesia fitness before the surgery. A complex or recurrent hernia may demand the need for contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen. Anaesthesiologist consultation is mandatory for certain individuals before surgery to obtain fitness for anaesthesia.